What are these?
What are these?
AP are places on the body surface into which the Qi of the Internal Organs (Zangfu) and the Meridians( Jingluo) pours, converges and gathers
AP constitutes a communication gate between the external and the internal environment of an organism, where AP serves as an opening(which can be few mm or up to 1,5 cm in diameter) for passage of the external Qi andthe internal Qi.
It is at this opening that Qi can be obtained and manipulated by needling, moxibustion, pressure, massage (Tui Na) or laser light.
Manipulation of APby needing (and also by manipulating a needle),laser or moxibustionproduces a reaction called De Qi, “arrival of Qi”.
De Qi is critical for the achievement of the therapeutic affect(see also section: Propagation of Needling Sensation).
AP that are distributed on the 14meridians (see below)are characterised by:
1) Aggregation of connective tissue:
In the body, some of the connective tissue forms subcutaneous fascia (fascia from Latin means "band"):
Fascia are tough sheets or bands beneath the skin that spread throughout the body in a three-dimensional web, from head to feet, without interruption,
Fascia is an integral part of Body’s Communication System(which also comprisesnervous system, endocrine system,andcellular signaling (paracrine and autocrine),
Fascia serves as a 'body-wide signaling network', that transmits mechanical signals to and from fibroblasts, immune, vascular, endocrineand neural cells present within tissues.
2) Electrical conductivity:
Is high at meridian points,but low at non-meridian points (see below),
The meridians, in turn, are characterised as the routes of an ionicflow,
Is also high at points with ample Qi and Blood flow, but low at those with deficient Qi and Blood flow.
Depending on patient’s anatomy, the character of the disorder, and the constitution of the patient acupuncture needles are inserted at different depths, angles and directions and retained for different periods of time.
There are 361 main AP that are distributed among the pathways of 14 meridians (12 primarymeridians + 2 extraordinary vessels)
There are 361 main AP that are distributed among the pathways of 14 meridians (12 primarymeridians + 2 extraordinary vessels).
These points have systemic therapeutic effect on the organism and most of them are of prime importance in acupuncture therapy.
Points on the 14 meridians are marked by low electric resistance and high electrical conductivity, these points are known as "eu-conductive points".
Each of the 14 meridian has its own amount of points (openings), for example:
Small Intestine – 19 AP
Large Intestine – 20 AP
Lung– 11 AP
Spleen – 21 AP
Stomach – 45 AP
Liver – 24 AP
Gall Bladder– 44 AP
Pericardium – 9 AP
Triple Burner – 21 AP
Kidneys – 27 AP
Bladder – 67 AP
Du Mai (Governingvessel) – 28AP
Ren Mai (Conception vessel) – 24AP
There are additionally up to 1000 Extra AP (called non-meridian AP):
These points lie outside the pathways of the 14 meridians, however, some of them are also distributed along the courses of the 14 meridians,
* Extra ap are located in various parts of the body and have their own specific function, by way of example, on the right leg, near shin bone there is an Appendix Point (Ex-LE-7 Lanwei) that is used for diagnosis and relief of appendicitis.
Furthermore, there are Ashi points(non-meridian AP):
They are also called "tender spots" or "trigger points",
Have no specific names nor defin¬ite locations,
These points and are used to treat pain locally.
In western schools of TEAM,the names forAP are given according to the name of the organ they connect to and to the point’s order starting from the beginning of the flow of the meridian, e.g.:
44th point on the Stomach channel has the name ST-44,
67th point on the Bladder channelis BL-67,
11th point on the Large Intestine channel is LI-11,
23rd point on Governing Vesselis GV-23,...
In Chineseschools of TEAM, APare mostly nominated by way of analogy, e.g.:
The flow of Qi and Blood is comparedto that of water:
* HT-3 shaohaimeans young sea; LI-11 quchicrooked pond; SI-3 houxi, back stream.
Prominence/ depression of the tendons/bones are compared to mountains/ valleys:
* GB-34 yanglingquan, yang mound spring; ST-34, liangqiu, hill ridge.
Characteristic local shape of the body is signified by certain animals or utensils:
* LU -10, yuji fish border; ST-35 dubi, calf nose; ST-6 jiache, cheek vehicle,
Their functions are analogized by architectural structures, astronomical or meteorological phenomena:
* GB-24 riyue, sun and moon; GV-23, shangxing upper star.